Russia has formally adopted a law that gives its government more control over its domestic internet.
The law means the systems that exchange data between the networks forming the Russian internet must share more information with government regulators.
It also lets regulators exert direct control over what Russians can post, see and talk about online when national security is threatened.
Russian net firms have until 1 November to comply with the law.
Widespread protests were mounted in a bid to stop the law being passed.